54 HISTORY OF WESTERN EDUCATION in the Seventh Century B.C.* The object of education, according to the writer, is to make men wise by training them from child- hood to know and to keep the Law of Moses, and by basing their zeal for the Law pn a knowledge of the national history. " When thy son asketh thee in time to conic, saying, What mean the testimonies and the statutes and the judgments which the Lord our God hath commanded you ? then thou shalt say unto thy son, We were Pharaoh's bondmen in Egypt* . „ ." The Law is to be shown worthy of obedience because it is the Law of the (Jotl who brought His people out of bondage into a goodly land. Fur- ther, the responsibility for this education is laid definitely on the father. It is in the family and not in a school that the. child is to be educated. This is brought out clearly in the passage called the Shema, the well-known verses in the sixth chapter which the faithful Jew recites every day: "Hear, 0 Israel, the Lord our God is one Lord ; and thou shalt love the Lord thy (Jotl with all thine heart and with all thy soul and with all thy might. And these words which I command thee this day .shall be upon thy heart, and thou shalt teach them diligently unto thy children* and shalt talk of them when thou sittest in thy house and when thoti walkest by the way,*' Jewish history entered on a new phase in the Sixth Century iu?» The ten tribes of Israel had been completely absorbed by Assyria at the end of the Eighth Century, but Judah in the security of her more isolated position in the south, maintained her national existence for a century longer. Then in her turn she was con- quered by Babylon, and the Jews finally ceased tt> be a nation, But the religious revival of the Seventh Century saved judah from the fate of Israel. The chief people were carried oil1 to Haby- lon, and remained there for fifty years till the conquest of Babylon by the Persians made it possible for the exiles to return home, in the meantime a great change of momentous consequence for the world had come over the spirit of the people. A world religion, that had its first expression in the noble prophecies uf the un- known prophet who is sometimes called the Second iaauth, had been born. This, however, was not realised by the Jews them- selves* The immediate result was to produce a more intense nationalism. The temple was rebuilt, and a new movement for the stricter observance of the law, especially the priestly Juw, wua * See especially chaps, iv, 9; vi, 7, ao; ix, 19 ; auuti, 13 ; ****»» 46.